The ND YAG laser uses tiny bursts of light at very high energy, which breaks the pigment in the tattoo into very small particles that are naturally eliminated from the body. This technique is very effective and has little or no risk.
picosecond laser tattoo removal is the most advanced method. Picosecond lasers are more effective at dispersing ink particles because they produce shorter light pulses than conventional nanosecond lasers. As a result, tattoos can be removed more quickly and completely with less discomfort and scars.
The main mechanism of picosecond laser tattoo removal involves the fragmentation of the chromophore through both photothermal and photoacoustic effects. Picosecond lasers transmit light pulse lengths that are closer to the TRT of tattoo pigment molecules; therefore, they can deliver heat radiation more efficiently and can be destructively focused on the target area. For example, the average size of carbon black in Indian ink is approximately 40 nm in diameter, while the TRT for 40 nm particles is approximately one nanosecond. The picosecond pulse can be thermally confined to the target because it is irradiated with a pulse duration of less than 1 nanosec.
The main benefit of ND YAG laser tattoo removal is the condition of the skin when the tattoo is gone. Another benefit is the fact that the ND YAG laser can remove the most difficult colors, which are red, black and blue. We can also remove orange, purple, yellow, aqua and green with different wavelength lasers.
The wavelength is more influential than pulse duration for the removal of each colored tattoo. Regardless of the pulse duration, the 532 nm laser was the most effective in clearing red, orange, and yellow colored tattoos and was mildly effective in removing green and black colored pigments. The overall effect and safety was better with the picosecond 532 nm laser. In removing black tattoos, the 1064 nm picosecond laser was the most effective.
In comparison with the nanosecond laser, the picosecond laser demonstrated several advantages, including better tattoo removal ability and lesser side effects. In which picosecond laser pulses were found to be more efficient in clearing colored tattoos and produce less damage to the surrounding skin and scarring due to the low fluence level.